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Brown fat

Patch aims to turn white fats into energy-burning brown fats

Prof Chen Peng (left) holding the new microneedle fat burning patch with Asst Prof Xu Chenjie (Credit: Nanyang Technological University)
When the patch is pressed into the skin for about two minutes, these micro-needles become embedded in the skin and detach from the patch, which can then be removed

Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), have developed a micro-needle patch that delivers drugs that are known to turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat. In animal studies, the patch reduced weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet and their fat mass by more than 30 percent over four weeks.

The new type of skin patch contains hundreds of micro-needles, each thinner than a human hair, which are loaded with the drug Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist or another drug called thyroid hormone T3 triiodothyronine. When the patch is pressed into the skin for about two minutes, these micro-needles become embedded in the skin and detach from the patch, which can then be removed. As the needles degrade, the drug molecules then slowly diffuse to the energy-storing white fat underneath the skin layer, turning it into energy-burning brown fats.

The study, ‘Transdermal Delivery of Anti-Obesity Compounds to Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue with Polymeric Microneedle Patches, Small Methods’, published in the journal Small Methods, recently by NTU Professor Chen Peng and Assistant Professor Xu Chenjie, suggests this approach could address the worldwide obesity problem without resorting to surgical operations or oral medication.

"With the embedded microneedles in the skin of the mice, the surrounding fats started browning in five days, which helped to increase the energy expenditure of the mice, leading to a reduction in body fat gain," said Assistant Professor Xu, who focuses on research in drug delivery systems. "The amount of drugs we used in the patch is much less than those used in oral medication or an injected dose. This lowers the drug ingredient costs while our slow-release design minimises its side effects.”

Under the two scientists' guidance at NTU's School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, research fellow Dr Aung Than conducted experiments which showed that the patch could suppress weight gain in mice that were fed a high-fat diet and reduce their fat mass by over 30 percent, over a period of four weeks. The treated mice also had significantly lower blood cholesterol and fatty acids levels compared to the untreated mice.

Being able to deliver the drug directly to the site of action is a major reason why it is less likely to have side effects than orally delivered medication. The team estimates that their prototype patch had a material cost of about S$5 (US$3.50) to make, which contains beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist combined with Hyaluronic acid, a substance naturally found in the human body and commonly used in products like skin moisturisers. Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist is a drug approved by the Federal Drug Administration of the United States and is used to treat overactive bladders, while T3 triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone commonly used for medication for an underactive thyroid gland.

"What we aim to develop is a painless patch that everyone could use easily, is unobtrusive and yet affordable," said Professor Chen, a biotechnology expert who researches on obesity. "Most importantly, our solution aims to use a person's own body fats to burn more energy, which is a natural process in babies."

Both have been shown in other research studies to be able to turn white fats brown, but their use in reducing weight gain is hampered by potentially serious side-effects and drug accumulation in non-targeted tissues if conventional drug delivery routes were used, such as through oral intake.

NTU's Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine Associate Professor Melvin Leow, who was not affiliated with this study, said it is exciting to be able to tackle obesity via the browning of white fat, and the results were promising.

"These data should encourage Phase I Clinical studies in humans to translate these basic science findings to the bedside, with the hope that these microneedle patches may be developed into an established cost-effective modality for the prevention or treatment of obesity in the near future," added Leow, an endocrinologist.

Since the publication of the paper, the team has received keen interest from biotechnology companies and is looking to partner clinician scientists to further their research. 

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