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Melatonin and obesity

Melatonin helps burn calories and curbs weight gain in rats

In humans he recommends melatonin treatment as a complementary weight loss strategy alongside an energy restricted diet and increased energy output in the form of physical activity

Researchers from the University of Granada, University Hospital La Paz (Madrid) and the University of Texas (USA) have identified a new molecular mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of the chronic administration of melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone released by the pineal gland overnight. Previous studies conducted by numerous research teams, including the UGR team behind the present study, showed that melatonin possesses anti-obesity effects.

However, although the uses of melatonin for obesity control have already been demonstrated, this new study, ‘Melatonin increases brown adipose tissue mass and function in Zücker diabetic fatty rats: implications for obesity control, Journal of Pineal Research’,recently published in the Journal of Pineal Research, determined the specific molecular mechanism triggered by its chronic administration.

Ahmad Agil Abdalla (Credit: University of Granada)

In the study, led by Ahmad Agil Abdalla, Full Professor at the Department of Pharmacology of the University of Granada (UGR), Spain, a group of diabetic fatty rats were treated with melatonin and the results were rather surprising. Firstly, melatonin increased the brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of the treated animals, which in turn reduced dangerous white visceral fat in the abdominal region. Secondly, it also had a positive impact on the thermogenic activity of their bodies and their mitochondrial mass and function. Seeing as thermogenesis is a process during which the body burns calories to produce heat and mitochondria are the organelles involved in this process, the study effectively demonstrates that melatonin does indeed help to curb weight gain.

Previous studies carried out by international research groups, including the UGR team, have already demonstrated the powerful anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects of melatonin. With respect to its anti-obesity effects, melatonin tackles excess weight on two levels (targets). On one hand, it browns the white subcutaneous fat and turns it into beige fat, thus creating more tissue that turns fat into energy rather than storing it. On the other hand, it improves the thermogenic capacity of the mitochondria in the existing brown adipose tissue by boosting the levels of the protein UCP1, which puts the calorie burning mechanism into motion.

According to Agil, melatonin had these effects in rats even when other factors, like diet or the amount of physical exertion, were held equal. In humans, however, he recommends melatonin treatment as a complementary weight loss strategy alongside an energy restricted diet and increased energy output in the form of physical activity. He also adds that we should do exercise in cold environments, as cold temperatures trigger thermogenesis, which in turn increases the calorie expenditure we can achieve.

Building on the results of this study, the researchers are currently conducting clinical trials involving melatonin agonists. The study emphasises the need for more public and private funding in this area and are currently seeking to collaborate with companies interested in helping them to commercialise their findings. The ultimate goal of the team is to explore the potential applications of melatonin for the treatment of human obesity.

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