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Danish initiative to establish a potential causal link between gut microbiome and the development of cardiometabolic diseases

The Novo Nordisk Foundation has committed DKK 150 million (USD 22 million) for the first phase of the Microbiome Health Initiative, a virtual research centre anchored at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), north of Copenhagen.

This new Denmark-based research initiative aims to establish a potential causal link between the gut microbiome – the combined genetic material of the communities of bacteria and other microbes in the human gut – and the development of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The goal is to generate knowledge that can lead to new prevention or treatment options for people living with, or at risk of, CMD.


Professor Fredrik Bäckhed from the University of Gothenburg will be employed part-time at DTU to lead the initiative, with Professor Tine Rask Licht from DTU National Food Institute as co-Director.

Research has already shown associations between several gut bacteria or metabolites – substances produced by microbes – and CMD. In Phase 1, the initiative will therefore focus on collaborative research projects that investigate the specific effects of these bacteria or metabolites and advance understanding on how microbiome interventions could reduce the risk of CMD or help manage it. This phase will run from 2024-2028.


"Our task is to verify a causal connection between the intestinal microbiome and diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes," explained Professor Licht. "These links have been partially elucidated in laboratory trials and animal experiments, but there is yet no solid evidence of causal relationships in humans. Once we have this knowledge, the next step in the project will be to find and develop new strategies to treat or prevent these major diseases. Such new strategies will rely on modification of our gut microbiome, for example by adding new microbes, or new dietary components."


The initiative also involves leading scientists at the University of Copenhagen, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, and the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, and clinicians at Odense University Hospital and Steno Diabetes Centre Copenhagen. Together, they cover a broad range of disciplines, including microbial physiology, bioinformatics, aetiology of CMD, and human interventions.


While DTU's strength in the project is research into the impact of diet on the structure and activity of the human microbiome, the other research centres in the initiative have extensive expertise in CMD research, microbiome research, and translation into clinical settings.


"The interdisciplinary approach of the project makes it possible to coordinate research between the strongest international environments," added Professor Bäckhed. "It is unique that we can coordinate efforts between universities and hospitals to develop the most promising treatment concepts."


Despite major advances in research and treatment, the prevalence of CMD has doubled in the last 30 years. This group of conditions – including obesity and type 2 diabetes – and associated complications such as heart attack and stroke are now the leading cause of death worldwide.


Also in the last years, advances in microbiome research have led to new understanding regarding the impact of microbes and their metabolic output on human physiology, immunity, and disease processes. In the case of CMD, evidence strongly suggests that the gut microbiome – partly due to the metabolites the microbes produce – plays a critical role, and that by making small changes, individuals could reduce their risk of, for example, developing diabetes or suffering a heart attack.


This initiative aims to generate significant new knowledge that, in the future, could lead to approved microbiome-based solutions such as supplements or improved dietary guidance to prevent or treat CMD.


"The Danish microbiome research field is strong but, in order to take the critical next steps, we need an ambitious, interdisciplinary approach that also includes leading international experts," said Birgitte Holst, Scientific Director in Medical Science at the Novo Nordisk Foundation. "If this initiative succeeds in establishing a causal link between the microbiome and CMD, it could lead to a whole new set of tools for managing these devastating diseases and help resolve a major global health challenge."


Phase 2, which is subject to approval following a mid-term evaluation of Phase 1, would run from 2026-2030. In this phase, the initiative would support human intervention studies and invest in infrastructure to support the development of microbes, microbial compounds, or targeted supplements for therapeutic purposes.

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