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News about clinical research: trials, studies, case reports, etc.

ERABS can be successfully deployed for end-stage renal failure

A study assessing the potential benefits and safety of the Enhanced Recovery After Bariatric Surgery (ERABS) protocol for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has found that ERABS in this population has overall minimal adverse events and lack of any ERABS-related complications.

Gastric bypass improves muscle strength and physical performance

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves relative muscle strength and physical performance in people with obesity, according to a study led by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. However, as well as resulting in dramatic weight loss, the surgery also results in lean mass and absolute grip strength decline.

Large variability in pre- and post-op care pathways in Scotland

Researchers from Scotland have reported a large nationwide variability in pre- and post-operative care pathways across Scotland, in a study that focused on pre-operative costs and the first 12 months following surgery. They note that the subsequent financial impact on the provision of bariatric surgery services “is a likely consequence of widespread uncertainty regarding best practice and a lack of more detailed guidance regarding service delivery.”

Personality type could influence attitudes to body weight

Florida State University researchers suggest that the specific alchemy of an individual's personality - their distinct blend of conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, neuroticism and extraversion - is directly related to their beliefs about others' bodies and the ways those beliefs are expressed in social interactions.

VAT prioritisation may cause pathogenic obesity

Type-2 (adult-onset) diabetes and other diseases related to the obesity epidemic depend on how the body stores excess energy, according to evolutionary biologist, Dr Mary Jane West-Eberhard, emeritus scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. West-Eberhard describes her theory about fat inside the abdominal cavity (visceral adipose tissue or VAT), the ‘VAT prioritisation hypothesis.’

Bile acids mediate metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery

A team of Vanderbilt investigators has pinpointed the role of bile acids and a specific signalling pathway in the positive metabolic effects of weight-loss surgery. The findings also suggest that the intestinal microbiome participates in post-surgery improvements and guide new treatment strategies for obesity and diabetes.

"Surgical patients can experience dramatic changes in glucose regulation while they are still in the recovery room," said Dr Charles (Robb) Flynn, associate professor of Surgery. "These operations cause metabolic changes that we don't really understand."

Surgery betters weight management as most effective treatment

Surgery remains the most effective and cost-effective long-term approach to reducing weight for adults adults with severe obesity, according to research from the University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Health Forum, London and the University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. However, the study also found that high quality weight management programmes (WMPs) are effective tools in reducing weight for up to 10 years in some cases.

Bariatric surgery - new microbial strains in human faecal community

Using a unique bioinformatics technique, developed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), researchers have detected the emergence of new strains of microbes in the human faecal microbiota after bariatric surgery. These new strains emerged after surgical disruption of the stomach and upper small intestine. In contrast, the researchers found that strains of the human gut faecal microbiota resembled those found pre-surgery following surgery in the colon, the lower part of the gastrointestinal.

EPT more accurate for bariatric surgery anticoagulant dosage

Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), which measures the enzyme in blood plasma that causes blood to clot and bleeding risk, provides a more accurate assessment of the best dosage for various anticoagulants, according to researchers from Rutgers Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy. The results revealed that 80 percent of patients receiving enoxaparin had minor bleeding during surgery, which correlated with the ETP measurement.

Factors influencing RYGB anaesthesia-related complications

Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are the most common anaesthesia-related complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, although this procedure has few anaesthetic complications, according to researchers University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. The study authors found that factors affecting PONV had a strong impact on the overall predictors of anaesthesia complication. For example, PONV was more common in younger and female patients.

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