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News about clinical research: trials, studies, case reports, etc.

Increase in risk of bone fracture after gastric bypass

The risk of bone fractures increases after a gastric bypass operation, according to researchers from the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. The study is based on the records of 38,971 patients who underwent gastric bypass operations, of which 7,758 had diabetes and 31,213 did not. Those who had had the operation were compared with an equally large group of individuals who had not been operated on and who had the equivalent morbidity and background data.

Standard low flow oxygen vs HFNO2 therapy after surgery

Australian researchers have commenced a pilot study that will assess whether post-operative high flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO2) improves respiratory function and reduces the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in comparison to conventional oxygen therapy, after laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

Conversion to SADI valid alternative to RYGB after failed LSG

Patients who underwent single anastomosis duodenoileal (SADI) bypass surgery after failed laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy reported significantly more weight loss, compared to patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), while complications rates and nutritional deficiencies were similar in both groups. According the study researchers from the Netherlands, the outcomes show that SADI “may therefore be considered the recommended operation for patients in which only additional weight loss is required.”

Obesity increases risk for peripheral artery disease

Obesity may increase the chance of developing peripheral artery disease, according to a study by researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD. Previous studies have found that smoking, diabetes and high cholesterol increase a person's risk of developing peripheral artery disease, but the role that obesity plays in the disease has been unclear.

HDAC11 function linked to obesity and diabetes treatment

Researchers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine have identified a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and diabetes. The scientists studied the biological function of an epigenetic modifier known as histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) and determined that deleting it in mice stimulates the formation of brown adipose tissue. The absence of HDAC11 also triggered beiging of white adipose tissue. These changes are important because white adipose tissue stores energy, while brown adipose tissue produces heat, thus expending energy.

Behavioural changes insufficient at preventing early childhood obesity

Young children and their families in poor communities were able to make some achievable and sustainable behavioural changes during the longest and largest obesity prevention intervention, but in the end, the results were insufficient to prevent early childhood obesity, according to the outcomes from the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial.

ReShape begins European Trial to support CE Mark for ReShape Vest

ReShape Lifesciences has commenced site initiation training for the first clinical trial site that will participate in the multi-centre trial of the ReShape Vest to support CE Mark approval. The trial, which will include study centres in Spain, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands and the Czech Republic, seeks to enrol up to 95 subjects who will be followed for two years. Primary endpoints in this trial include percent total body weight loss and adverse event rates at 12 months. Enrolment is expected to begin in the third quarter of 2018.

Surgery reduces microvascular complications of T2DM

Compared with usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with half the incidence of microvascular disease at 5 years for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to researchers from Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery not only improves glucose, blood pressure, and lipid control, but is likely to reduce macrovascular and microvascular complications, as well as improve survival in patients with severe obesity and T2DM.

Diet modifies the correlation between genetics and obesity

A correlation between obesity and genetics has been found to be modified by diet, according to researchers at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), who found that a specific gene - APOA2 - can result in a higher BMI.

Makeup of gut bacteria may play role in weight loss

A preliminary study examining gut bacteria has found that for some people, specific activities of gut bacteria may be responsible for their inability to lose weight, despite adherence to strict diet and exercise regimens. The Mayo Clinic research team collected and analysed gut bacteria samples from a group of 26 participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Obesity Treatment Research Program between August and September 2013. They found that gut bacteria among individuals who did not lose weight were different from gut bacteria in patients who lost weight.

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